Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

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JASS 2004: Course 3 Reading List

Note: The citations given on this page are a mere starting point for your own literature scanning activities.

The course will be divided in three parts. We start with a discussion of Augmented Reality, Ubiquitous Computing and Context Aware systems and necessary technologies. Afterwards, we will have a look at the underlying mathematics necessary for getting AR systems to work, and finally we will examine the research topic of Ubiquitous Tracking, i.e. the confluence of Augmented Reality and Ubiquitous Computing.

Part 1: Augmented Reality and UbiComp systems

Augmented Reality: Overview

This presentation should give an overview of state-of-the-art Augmented Reality systems and technologies. It will explain the general processing pipeline of AR systems and highlight the key subcomponents of every AR system: tracking, 3D scene generation and multimodal user interaction.

Current AR systems

This talk will present a selection of AR systems, ranging from the Boeing Wire Assembly demo to current AR software frameworks. It will try to identify reoccurring problems and the evolution of ideas.

  • C. Sandor, A. MacWilliams, M. Wagner, M. Bauer, G. Klinker, SHEEP: The Shared Environment Entertainment Pasture
  • M. Bauer, B. Bruegge, G. Klinker, A. MacWilliams, T. Reicher, S. Riß, C. Sandor, M. Wagner, Design of a Component-Based Augmented Reality Framework
  • S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, T. Höllerer, and T. Webster. A Touring Machine: Prototyping 3D Mobile Augmented Reality Systems for Exploring the Urban Environment. In Proceedings of ISWC 1997, Boston (MA), 1997.
  • D. Schmalstieg, A. Fuhrmann, G. Hesina, Z. Szalavari, L. Miguel Encarnacao, M. Gervautz, and W. Purgathofer. The Studierstube Augmented Reality Project. Technical
report, TU Wien, 2000.

Ubiquitous Computing: Overview and Systems

Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp) is a new paradigm that aims at making computer systems invisibly interwoven with the user's environment. This talk will give an overview of the first ideas of UbiComp and applications that have been implemented to date.

  • Mark Weiser. The Computer for the 21st Century. Scientific American, 1991.
  • Lars Erik Holmquist, Hans-Werner Gellersen, Gerd Kortuem, Albrecht Schmidt, Martin Strohbach, Stavros Antifakos, Florian Michahelles, Bernt Schiele , Michael Beigl and Ramia Maze, Building intelligent environments with Smart-Its. In Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, Jan/Feb 2004, page 56 - 64, Volume: 24 , Issue: 1, ISSN: 0272-1716.
  • Florian Michahelles, Stavros Antifakos, Jani Boutellier, Albrecht Schmidt and Bernt Schiele, Instructions immersed into the real world. How your Furniture can teach you. Poster Submission, The Fifth International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp), Seattle, USA, October 2003.

Overview of Tracking Technologies

Tracking is the process of repeatedly determining the position and orientation of objects or people. It is one of the core technologies of Augmented Reality and is at the center of this course's attention. In this talk, an overview of existing tracking technologies should be given, along with an intense discussion of advantages and drawbacks of different technologies.

  • Miguel Ribo, State of the Art Report on Optical Tracking, 2001
  • K. Meyer, H. L. Applewhite and F. A. Biocca. A Survey of Position Trackers. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 173-200, 1992.
  • Rolland, J.P., L. Davis, and Y. Baillot, A Survey of Tracking Technology for Virtual Environments, in Augmented Reality and Wearable Computers, Ch. 3, Ed. Barfield and Caudell, Mahwah, NJ., 2001.

Current Multi-Sensor Fusion Systems

As will have been seen in the last talk, no single tracking technology is sufficient for all needs. The idea of combining multiple sensors to get a result that is better than the sum of the parts will be researched in this presentation. For this purpose, multiple multi sensor systems will be presented, with a discussion of commonalities and differences.


Context Aware Computing

Context-aware systems, especially those that are mobile, are a fairly new field, but several successful systems have already been built. All of these are heavily under development and are used as research platforms. This presentation should give an overview of context awareness as a term, existing systems and present a few in more detail, showing goals, approach and current status.

  • Anind K. Dey. Providing Architectural Support for Building Context-Aware Applications. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, November 2000. 1st chapter.
  • Mark Weiser. The Computer for the 21st Century. Scientific American, 1991.
  • D.Garlan, D.Siewiorek, A.Smailagic, P.Steenkiste: Project Aura: Toward Distraction-Free Pervasive Computing. IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol.1, No.2, 2002, pp. 22-32
  • Tony Jebara, Bernt Schiele, Nuria Oliver, and Alex Pentland. DyPERS: Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System. Technical Report 463, MIT Media Laboratory, Cambridge, MA, 1997

Part 2: Mathematical Foundations

The Mathematics of Tracking

This talk will focus on the representation of position and orientation in three-dimensional space and discuss reoccuring problems.

The Mathematics of Calibrating AR Systems

In AR setups, some relationships between objects and properties of cameras, displays etc. have to be determined before the system can be used. The mathematics to do so will be discussed in this talk.

  • R. Y. Tsai. A Versatile Camera Calibration Technique for High Accuracy 3D Machine Vision. IBM Technical Report 1985.
  • M. Tuceryan, D. Greer, R. Whitaker, D. Breen, C. Crampton, E. Rose, and K. Ahlers, Calibration requirements and procedures for a monitor-based augmented reality system. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 255–273, 1995.

The Mathematics of Sensor Fusion

This talk will present the mathematics of two often used sensor fusion techniques, namely Kalman filters and particle filters.

Part 3: Ubiquitous Tracking

Foundations of Ubiquitous Tracking

Ubiquitous Tracking aims at combining UbiComp environments with Augmented Reality interaction techniques. For this purpose, a concept for the dynamic integration of multiple sensors has to be provided that allows ad hoc integration of mobile users' tracking setups in intelligent environments. This talk will present some recent research results on that topic.

Towards Autocalibrating AR setups

This presentation gives an overview of research results aimed at automatic calibration of AR setups. Calibrating large setups without the user's intervention will be a key requirement to make the vision of Ubiquitous Tracking work.

  • A. State, M. Livingston, W. Garrett, G. Hirota, M. Whitton, E. Pisano, and H. Fuchs, Superior augmented reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking. in Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series: SIGGRAPH ’96 (New Orleans, LA), pp. 429–438, ACM SIGGRAPH, New York, August 1996.
  • D. Koller, G. Klinker, E. Rose, D. Breen, R. Whitaker, M. Tuceryan, Automated camera calibration and 3D egomotion estimation for augmented reality applications. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP'97), 1997.

Graph Theoretical Aspects of Sensor Networks

Every Ubiquitous Tracking setup can be represented as a graph of spatial relationships. Getting information about the spatial relation between two objects can then be regarded as a graph search. This search has to be done in a distributed fashion to ensure the scalability of the approach. In this talk, we will look at results from graph theory that might help increasing the efficiency of sensor networks.

-- MartinWagner - 18 Feb 2004

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