N. Navab, S. Wiesner, S. Benhimane, E. Euler, S.M. Heining
Visual Servoing for Intraoperative Positioning and Repositioning of Mobile C-arms
Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (MICCAI 2006), Copenhagen, Denmark, October 2006 (bib)
The problem of positioning mobile C-arms, e.g. for down the beam techniques, as well as repositioning during surgical procedures currently requires time, skill and additional radiation. This paper uses a Camera-Augmented Mobile C-arm (CAMC) to speed up the procedure, simplify its execution and reduce the necessary radiation. For positioning the C-arm in down-the-beam position, the pre-operative diagnostic CT is used for defining the axis. Additional CT visible markers on patient's skin allow the CAMC's optical camera to compute the C-arm's pose and its required displacement for positioning. In the absence of electronically controlled mobile C-arms, the system provides step-by-step guidance to surgical staff until the final position is achieved. At this point, the surgeon can acquire an X-ray to ensure the correct positioning. In the case of intra-operative repositioning, no pre-operative CT is required. X-ray/Optical markers allow the visual servoing algorithm to guide the surgical staff in C-arm repositioning using CAMC's optical camera. This work paves the path for many possible applications of visual servoing in C-arm positioning and in surgical navigation. Experiments on phantom and a cadaver study demonstrate the advantages of the new methods.
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