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Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

M. Feuerstein, T. Mussack, S.M. Heining, N. Navab
Intraoperative Laparoscope Augmentation for Port Placement and Resection Planning in Minimally Invasive Liver Resection
IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 355-369, March 2008 (bib)

In recent years, an increasing number of liver tumor indications were treated by minimally invasive laparoscopic resection. Besides the restricted view, two major intraoperative issues in laparoscopic liver resection are the optimal planning of ports as well as the enhanced visualization of (hidden) vessels, which supply the tumorous liver segment and thus need to be divided (e.g., clipped) prior to the resection. We propose an intuitive and precise method to plan the placement of ports. Preoperatively, self-adhesive fiducials are affixed to the patient's skin and a computed tomography (CT) data set is acquired while contrasting the liver vessels. Immediately prior to the intervention, the laparoscope is moved around these fiducials, which are automatically reconstructed to register the patient to its preoperative imaging data set. This enables the simulation of a camera flight through the patient's interior along the laparoscope's or instruments' axes to easily validate potential ports. Intraoperatively, surgeons need to update their surgical planning based on actual patient data after organ deformations mainly caused by application of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. Therefore, preoperative imaging data can hardly be used. Instead, we propose to use an optically tracked mobile C-arm providing cone-beam CT imaging capability intraoperatively. After patient positioning, port placement, and carbon dioxide insufflation, the liver vessels are contrasted and a 3-D volume is reconstructed during patient exhalation. Without any further need for patient registration, the reconstructed volume can be directly augmented on the live laparoscope video, since prior calibration enables both the volume and the laparoscope to be positioned and oriented in the tracking coordinate frame. The augmentation provides the surgeon with advanced visual aid for the localization of veins, arteries, and bile ducts to be divided or sealed.
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