Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

J. Fotouhi, A. Mehrfard, T. Song, A. Johnson, G. Osgood, M. Unberath, M. Armand, N. Navab
Development and Pre-Clinical Analysis of Spatiotemporal-Aware Augmented Reality in Orthopedic Interventions
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
The first three authors contribute equally to this paper.

Suboptimal interaction with patient data and challenges in mastering 3D anatomy based on ill-posed 2D interventional images are essential concerns in image-guided therapies. Augmented reality (AR) has been introduced in the operating rooms in the last decade; however, in image-guided interventions, it has often only been considered as a visualization device improving traditional workflows. As a consequence, the technology is gaining minimum maturity that it requires to redefine new procedures, user interfaces, and interactions. The main contribution of this paper is to reveal how exemplary workflows are redefined by taking full advantage of head-mounted displays when entirely co-registered with the imaging system at all times. The awareness of the system from the geometric and physical characteristics of X-ray imaging allows the exploration of different human-machine interfaces. Our system achieved an error of 4.76±2.91 mm for placing K-wire in a fracture management procedure, and yielded errors of 1.57±1.16∘ and 1.46±1.00∘ in the abduction and anteversion angles, respectively, for total hip arthroplasty (THA). We compared the results with the outcomes from baseline standard operative and non-immersive AR procedures, which had yielded errors of 4.61 mm, 4.76∘, 4.77∘ and 5.13 mm, 1.78∘, 1.43∘, respectively, for wire placement, and abduction and anteversion during THA. We hope that our holistic approach towards improving the interface of surgery not only augments the surgeon's capabilities but also augments the surgical team's experience in carrying out an effective intervention with reduced complications and provide novel approaches of documenting procedures for training purposes.
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