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Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

L. Wang, J. Traub, S.M. Heining, S. Benhimane, R. Graumann, E. Euler, N. Navab
Long Bone X-ray Image Stitching Using Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm
Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI, 2008, New York, USA, September 6-10 2008 (bib)

X-ray images are widely used during surgery for long bone fracture fixation. Mobile C-arms provide X-ray images which are used to determine the quality of trauma reduction, i.e. the extremity length and mechanical axis of long bones. Standard X-ray images have a narrow field of view and can not visualize the entire long bone on a single image. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate panoramic X-ray images in real time by using the previously introduced Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm by Navab et al. This advanced mobile C-arm system can register the X-ray image with an optical image by construction, which facilitates the generation of panoramic X-ray images based on first stitching the optical images and then embedding the X-ray images. We additionally introduce a method to compensate for the parallax effect that leads to the blurring and measurement error on panoramic X-ray images. Visual marker tracking is employed to automatically stitch the sequence of video images and to rectify images. Our proposed method is suitable for intra-operative usage for the generation panoramic X-ray images, which are capable of metric measurements, with less radiation and without requirement of frontal parallel setup and overlapping X-ray regions. The results show that the panoramic X-ray images generated by our method are accurate enough (errors were less than 1%) for metric measurements and suitable for many clinical applications in trauma reduction.
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