Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

Hauptseminar/Master Seminar:
Simulation in Medical Education

Nassir Navab, Patrick Wucherer, Philipp Stefan

Type: Advanced Seminar Course Module IN8901
Type: Master Seminar Module IN2107
Type: Seminar Module IN0014
SWS: 2+0
ECTS: 4 Credits
Location: NARVIS lab, Room C2.06, Get directions here
Time Tuesdays 27.11.-18.12. at 6.30pm-7.30pm
Course Language: English


  • First information meeting: 08.10.2012 at 11:00-12.00 in NARVIS lab, Room C2.06, Get directions here
  • Introduction Meeting: Monday 22.10.2012 at 17:00-18.30 in NARVIS lab, Room C2.06, Get directions here
  • The detailed schedule: see below.


In aviation, simulation environments for team training have been used for more than 30 years. The first flight simulators for pilot training date back more than a century.

In the medical domain, anaesthetists were the first medical experts who made the first steps towards using a simulated environment as a training framework. For example, anaesthesia crisis resource management (ACRM) is derived from Crew resource management (CRM), originally developed by NASA for the aviation industry, and adopts several key elements such as simulation of adverse situations, training of situation awareness, decision-making, communication and the concept of debriefing. Pioneered by David Gaba in the late 1980s, computerized mannequin simulators have been developed for training and performance assessment of anaesthetists and have been in use for more than two decades. Today, mannequin simulators can be connected to medical ventilators and monitoring devices, physiologically respond to drug administration and show pathologic conditions In education and training of surgeons, orthopedists and radiologists, skill training can take a wide spectrum of forms, ranging from animal or cadaver tissue models to synthetic or computerized simulators. In particular, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) simulators are increasingly used as a learning environment for e.g. interventionaly radiology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, endoscopic interventions, spinal surgery and most recently neurosurgery.

In this seminar, we will discuss the scientific and technological foundations of medical simulation. We will illuminate the role of simulation in medical education, spanning the continuum of educational levels and bridging a multitude of health care professions. We will investigate the learning theory and methodology involved, e.g. perceptual learning, metric-based training, deliberate practice, as well as the approaches used to objectively and quantitatively measure its effectiveness and efficiency.


Learn how to:

  • Read scientific papers
  • Research state of the art on specific topic
  • Write scientific report
  • Do scientific presentation


Please register for the seminar in TUMonline and send a mail to Patrick Wucherer () including your name, your birthday, program of study and Matrikelnummer.

Maximum number of participants: 20


Presentation: The selected topic is presented to the other participants (15-20 minutes presentation and 5-10 minutes questions). Use the CAMP templates for PowerPoint CAMPmaster.pot, or Latex: CAMP-latex-template.zip.

Essay: The report (8 pages without abstract, images and bibliography) has to be submitted one week after the presentation. Please download and use the llncs2e.zip Latex template.

Both the presentation and the report have to be done in English.

Presentation Topics

ID Topic Assignee Material
1 Medical simulation: State-of-the-art. tdb R. Datta, K. Upadhyay, and C. Jaideep, ‘Simulation and its role in medical education’, Medical Journal Armed Forces India, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 167–172, Apr. 2012.
2 Simulators in medical training: Physical models, virtual reality and hybrid systems Carolina Falcón García Focus: Cardiology, Does a simulator exist, which combines a synthetic model and a simulated imaging device?
C. U. Cates and A. G. Gallagher, ‘The future of simulation technologies for complex cardiovascular procedures’, Eur Heart J, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 2127–2134, Jan. 2012.
3 Simulation of medical images: X-ray/Fluoroscopy, CT, PET tbd  
4 Force feedback devices and modeling of soft tissue Rebekka Seltmann Focus: Overview of haptic feedback models & combination of haptic feedback models with soft tissue models
T. R. Coles, D. Meglan, and N. W. John, ‘The Role of Haptics in Medical Training Simulators: A Survey of the State of the Art’, IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 51–66, Feb. 2011.
E. P. Westebring – van der Putten, R. H. M. Goossens, J. J. Jakimowicz, and J. Dankelman, ‘Haptics in minimally invasive surgery – a review’, Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3–16, Jan. 2008.
K. Lundin Palmerius, A. Ynnerman, and B. Gudmundsson, ‘Proxy-based Haptic Feedback from Volumetric Density Data’, presented at the Proceedings of the Eurohaptics Conference, 2002, pp. 104–109.
K. Lundin, M. Cooper, A. Persson, D. Evestedt, and A. Ynnerman, ‘Enabling design and interactive selection of haptic modes’, Virtual Reality, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2007. K. L. Palmerius, R. F. Havre, O. H. Gilja, and I. Viola, ‘Ultrasound palpation by haptic elastography’, in 2011 24th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), 2011, pp. 1–6.
5 Intelligent tutoring systems for medical education:
Modifying gaming consoles such as the Nintendo Wii to offer medical training
Oliver Broome J. M. Taekman and K. Shelley, ‘Virtual Environments in Healthcare: Immersion, Disruption, and Flow’, International Anesthesiology Clinics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 101–121, 2010.
6 Multidisciplinary medical team training tdb  
7 Simulator use in the Aviation Industry: Implications for Healthcare tdb  
8 Metric-based assessment of performance in Simulation Markus Reiter Focus: Development of performance metrics for Team Training
K. Moorthy, Y. Munz, D. Forrest, V. Pandey, S. Undre, C. Vincent, and A. Darzi, ‘Surgical Crisis Management Skills Training and Assessment’, Ann Surg, vol. 244, no. 1, pp. 139–147, Jul. 2006.
9 Perception and augmentation Arianne Tran T. Edmunds and D. K. Pai, ‘Perceptual Rendering for Learning Haptic Skills’, in symposium on Haptic interfaces for virtual environment and teleoperator systems, 2008. haptics 2008, 2008, pp. 225 –230.
C. M. Allen, W. Y. Pike, L. W. Lacy, L. Jung, and M. Wiederhold, ‘Using Biological and Environmental Malodors to Enhance Medical Simulation Training’, in The Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference (I/ITSEC), 2010, vol. 2010.
E. Errington, ‘The edge of reality: challenges facing educators using simulation to supplement students’ lived experience’, Apr-2011.
10 The role of stress factors in simulation-based training Nina Tanakova M. Schuetz, I. Gockel, J. Beardi, P. Hakman, F. Dunschede, S. Moenk, W. Heinrichs, and T. Junginger, ‘Three different types of surgeon-specific stress reactions identified by laparoscopic simulation in a virtual scenario’, Surgical Endoscopy, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1263–1267, 2008.
11 Human factors in acquiring medical skills: Perception and cognition tdb Fundamentals of Surgical Simulation
12 Human factors in acquiring medical skills: Learning and skill acquisition in surgery Mirije Shefiti Fundamentals of Surgical Simulation
13 Crisis simulation and the role of deliberate exposure to adverse events tdb  
14 Validation of medical simulation environments Julia Hoffmann V. N. Palter, N. Orzech, R. K. Reznick, and T. P. Grantcharov, ‘Validation of a Structured Training and Assessment Curriculum for Technical Skill Acquisition in Minimally Invasive Surgery’, Annals of Surgery, p. 1, Sep. 2012.
15 Deliberate practice in medical education tbd Does Simulation-Based Medical Education With Deliberate Practice Yield Better Results Than Traditional Clinical Education? A Meta-Analytic Comparative Review of the Evidence


The seminar consists of a preliminary meeting, an introductory meeting and seminar sessions. Each of the sessions will consist of several student presentations. All seminar participants are expected to be present at every session and to actively participate in the discussion.

Date Time Topic By Material
08.10.2012 11.00-12.00 First Information Meeting Tutors  PreliminaryMeeting (updated 19.10.12)
22.10.2012 17.00-18.30 Introduction Meeting Tutors  
27.11.2012 18.30-19.30 1-4 Carolina Falcón García; Rebekka Seltmann  
04.12.2012 (canceled; postponed: 18.12.2012) 18.30-19.30 5-8 Oliver Broome; Markus Reiter  
11.12.2012 18.30-19.30 9-10 Arianne Tran; Nina Tanakova  
18.12.2012 17.30-19.30 (updated) 11-15 Mirije Shefiti; Julia Hoffmann  

Literature and Helpful Links

A lot of scientific publications can be found online.

The following list may help you to find some further information on your particular topic:

Some publishers:

Libraries (online and offline):

Some further hints for working with references:

  • JabRef is a Java program for comfortable working with Bibtex literature databases. Handy feature: if you know the PubMed ID for an article, JabRef can import data from there (via "Web Search/Medline").
  • Mendeley is a cross-platform program for organising your references.

If you find useful resources that are not already listed here, please tell us, so we can add them for others. Thanks.

Title: Simulation in Medical Education
Professor: Nassir Navab
Tutors: Patrick Wucherer, Philipp Stefan
Type: Hauptseminar
Information: Hauptseminar, SWS: 2, ECTS: 4
Term: 2012WiSe

Edit | Attach | Refresh | Diffs | More | Revision r1.41 - 04 Jan 2013 - 18:21 - PhilippStefan

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