The Blocks of the lecture include:
- Block 1 - State of the Art and Environment I
- Part 1 - Organizational Matter (Julian Klodmann) - 35 min: You will get a short preview of the lecture. We will form groups of 4-5 students for the accompanying research. The assignments will be presented, and the first assignment (work with MATLAB/Simulink) is delegated to you.
- Part 2 - Products and Research (Rainer Konietschke, Julian Klodmann) - 90 min: This lecture will, based on the current state of the art surgical robotics, identify and classify various potentials of robotics in the OR. After this lecture, you will have an idea of the opportunities and challenges in surgical robotics and get a starting point for your contribution in this field.
- Part 3 - User interface, usability, evaluation, user-centric design (Bernhard Weber) - 60 min: The lecture consists of mainly two parts: (1) a general introduction to human factors methods and (2) an example of applying these methods in the field of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. In Part 1, methods of developing, improving and evaluating novel concepts of human-machine interfaces will be reviewed. It will be described how to involve end users in each stage of the product cycle, to determine user requirements as well as limitations and to evaluate concepts or systems accordingly. Besides qualitative methods like systematic field observations, semi-structured interviews, hierarchical task analyses and prototype testing, quantitative experimental methods like part-task or full scale simulations will be presented. In Part 2, the practical application of the user-centered approach will be illustrated by the example of DLR’s surgical robot MIRO for minimally invasive surgery.
- Block 2 - State of the Art and Environment II
- Part 1 - Surgical Techniques (Bernhard Kübler) - 210 min: You will learn about the general course of action and processes in ORs, technical basics of endoscopes (flexible endoscopes as well as minimally invasive surgery), and examples of application. Furthermore, basics of sterilization technology (gas, low-temperature plasma, heat, radiation) and notes on design of MIS instruments as well as current trends in surgery (single port surgery, NOTES etc.) will be presented.
- Block 3 - Robotics Basics I
- Part 1 - Kinematics (Christopher Schlenk) - 90 min: After a short repetition of rigid body transformation matrices, alternative ways to represent rotations such as Euler- and Kardan-angles, “angle and axis” representation, and unit quaternions will be introduced. Subsequently, the Denavit-Hartenberg convention to describe robot kinematics will be explained. Then, the calculation of the direct and inverse kinematics and of the Jacobi matrix of a robot is derived. Finally, you will learn how to calibrate a tool to the robot coordinate system.
- Part 2 - Kinematics exercises (Christopher Schlenk, Julian Klodmann) - 90 min: At the beginning of this exercise, you will identify the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of a robotic arm. Using these information, you will investigate the direct and inverse kinematics of this robot in MATLAB/Simulink and plot its workspace.
- Block 4 - Robotics Basics II
- Part 1 - Midterm presentations (You) - 30 min
- Part 2 – Sensors (Florian Steidle) - 45 min: We give an overview about possible sensor types used in robotics as well as fundamentals about physical measurement technologies.
- Part 3 – Actuators (Christopher Schlenk) - 30 min: Introduction to actuators, with focus on electromechanical actuators which are most relevant for surgical robotics.
- Part 4 - Dynamics (Julian Klodmann) - 90 min: The dynamics modeling of robot manipulators is essential for mechanical design, control and simulation of robotic systems. Understanding the dynamics of a robotic system enables to evaluate its capabilities and limitations to perform a certain task. Beginning with the dynamics of a first order mass-spring-damper system, you will form the dynamic equations of motion of robot manipulators. Different algorithms to derive the robot dynamics are summarized.
- Block 5 - Robotics Basics III
- Part 1 - Midterm presentations (You) - 30 min
- Part 2 - Control I (Andreas Tobergte) 90 min: You will learn about basic concepts in control like linear control, laplace transformation, transfer functions, state space formulation, pid controller, state control.
- Part 3 - Exercises (Andreas Tobergte, Julian Klodmann) 30 min: You will do some exercises using MATLAB/Simulink.
- Part 4 - Control II (Andreas Tobergte) 30 min: In this lecture you will get an introduction to passivity-based robot control.
- Block 6 - Robotics Basics IV & Basics for Designing a Surgical Robotics Application I
- Part 1 - Dynamics Follow up (Julian Klodmann) - 60 min
- Part 2 - Communication Infrastructure & Operating System (Thomas Bahls, Sergey Tarassenko) 60 min: You will learn about the fundamentalsof hardware and software communication infrastructure for robotic systems, exemplified on the current implementation used for the "MiroSurge" system. Those requirements are used to derive the basics for robobt operating software to enable the quasi continous control of a robotic systems on a mid and high abstraction level with easy accessable interfaces.
- Part 3 - Calibration/Registration in time and space and Tracking (Florian Steidle) - 75 min: Any surgical procedure performed is planned thoroughly before the intervention. This lecture covers, how to transfer the pre-operative plan into the actual procedure. Herein the major focus is placed on the robot as an assisting tool and most relevant methods for calibration and registration are presented. Also first basics regarding tracking are introduced.
- Block 7 - Basics for Designing a Surgical Robotics Application II (CAMPAR/IFL Visit)
- Part 1 - Final presentations (You) - 30 min
- Part 2 - Motion tracking and image-guided control (Martin Gröger) - 60 min: Motion tracking in medical images will be presented based on endoscopic image data. Methods for detecting landmarks for tracking will be shown and motion tracking strategies will be explained.
- Part 3 - Systems Engineering and Medical Product Development (Rainer Konietschke) – 60 min. In this block, you will get some ideas about the path towards turning your medical robot into a product. You will get an introduction into systems engineering and risk management. Peculiarities of certification in different countries (TÜV for Europe, FDA for US) are discussed. Standards for surgical robots such as 60601, 62304, 14971 are presented. In an exercise, you will perform elements of the risk management process such as fault tree analysis, hazards analysis, and DFMEA.
- Part 4 - Introduction to the research conducted by CAMPAR in the field of Surgical Robotics Applications (Benjamin Frisch) – 60 min. "LabTour" through the IFL (Interdisziplinäres Forschungs Labor).
- Block 8 - Basics for Designing a Surgical Robotics Application III (DLR Visit)
- Part 1 - Final presentations (You) - 30 min
- Part 2 - Surgical end effectors for Robots (Sophie Lantermann) - 60 min: Considering the robot itself, as an sofisticated positioning device or rather the human arm of the surgeon, the robotic endeffector is the tool, which directly interacts with the patient. Therefore many fundamental requirements are imposed on its design. One is to transform the dexterity of the surgeons’ hands into the patient, maybe even enhance it and integrate additional functionality, e.g. sensors or cutting capabilites. This lecture will give you an overview of the challenges arise during design of endeffectors for surgical robots mainly from the mechanical and systems engineering point of view.
- Part 3 - Examples of Surgical Robotics Applications at DLR & related (Julian Klodmann) – 60 min. "LabTour" through the Robotics and Mechtronics Center with major focus on the surgical robotics lab and related.
We will have about 30 min of breaks in each block, arranged by the lecturers.
- Block 9 - Basics for Designing a Surgical Robotics Application IV (DLR Visit)
- Part 1 - Final exam (You)
- Part 2 -Future Trends in Surgical Robotics (Julian Klodmann)
- Part 3 - Final presentations (You) - 45 min
- Part 4 - Wrap-up (All) - 15 min
- Jacob Rosen; Blake Hannaford; Richard M. Satava (Eds.) (2011) Surgical Robotics – Systems Applications and Visions, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-1125-4
- John J. Craig. 1989. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA.
- Hagn, U., Nickl, M., Jörg, S., Tobergte, A., Kübler, B., Passig, G., Gröger, M., Fröhlich, F., Seibold, U., Konietschke, R., Le-Tien, L., Albu-Schäffer, A., Grebenstein, M., Ortmaier, T. & Hirzinger, G. (2008) DLR MiroSurge – towards versatility in surgical robotics. 7. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Computer- und Roboterassistierte Chirurgie e.V. Proceedings of CURAC, 2008, pp. 143 – 146.
- Selected Workshop and Proceedings of the following congresses: ICRA, IROS, CARS, Curac
| TeachingForm |
| Title: || Introduction to Surgical Robotics |
| Professor: || Julian Klodmann and Dr. Ulrich Eck and Dr. Benjamin Frisch |
| Tutors: || |
| Type: || Lecture |
| Information: || 2 + 2 SWS, 5 ECTS Credits |
| Term: || 2016WiSe |
| Abstract: || The application-oriented course begins with a presentation of surgical interventions in cooperation with surgeons. State-of-the-art methods and methods with robotic assistance will be presented and compared. Then, background knowledge for surgical robotics is presented. Eventually, the acquired knowledge is applied to develop a solution to an existing clinical problem using robotics assistance. |