Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

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Virtual Mirror: Interaction Paradigm for Augmented Reality Applications

Virtual Mirror: Interaction Paradigm for Augmented Reality Applications

In medical collaboration with:
Sandro Heining, Ekkehard Euler, Ben Ockert

Scientific Director: Nassir Navab

Contact Person(s): Nassir Navab

Keywords: Medical Augmented Reality, HMD and Visualization


Augmented Reality offers a higher degree of freedom for the programmer than classical visualization of volume data on a screen. The existing paradigms for interaction with 3D objects are not satisfactory for particular applications since the majority of them rotate and move the object of interest. The classic manipulation of virtual objects cannot be used while keeping real and virtual spaces in alignment within an AR environment. This project introduces a simple and efficient interaction paradigm allowing the users to interact with 3D objects and visualize them from arbitrary viewpoints without disturbing the in-situ visualization, or requiring the user to change the viewpoint. We present a virtual, tangible mirror as a new paradigm for interaction with 3D models. The concept borrows its visualization paradigm in some sense from methodology used by dentists to examine the oral cavity without constantly changing their own viewpoint or moving the patients head. The virtual mirror improves the understanding of complex structures, enables completely new concepts to support navigational aid for different tasks and provides the user with intuitive views on physically restricted areas.


Figure 1: A virtual mirror attached to a tracked surgical drilling device used for instance to prepare drill canals for pedicle screw implantation in spine surgery.


This video introduces a new method for navigated spine surgery using a stereoscopic video see-through head-mounted display (HMD) and an optical tracking system. Vertebrae are segmented from volumetric CT data and visualized in-situ. A surgical drilling device is virtually extended with a mirror for intuitive planning of the drill canal, control of drill direction and insertion depth. The first designated application for the virtually extended drilling device is the preparation of canals for pedicle screw implantation in spine surgery.

Laparoscopic Virtual Mirror for Understanding Vessel Structure: Evaluation Study by Twelve Surgeons

The Tangible Virtual Mirror: New Visualization Paradigm for Navigated Surgery


C. Bichlmeier
Immersive, Interactive and Contextual In-Situ Visualization for Medical Applications
Dissertation an der Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, 2010 ( online version available here) (bib)
M. Wieczorek, A. Aichert, O. Kutter, C. Bichlmeier, J. Landes, S.M. Heining, E. Euler, N. Navab
GPU-accelerated Rendering for Medical Augmented Reality in Minimally-Invasive Procedures
Proceedings of Bildverarbeitung fuer die Medizin (BVM 2010), Aachen, Germany, March 14-16 2010 (bib)
S.M. Heining, C. Bichlmeier, E. Euler, N. Navab
Smart Device: Virtually Extended Surgical Drill
Proceedings of The 8th Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS 2008), Hong Kong, China, June, 2008 (bib)
C. Bichlmeier, S.M. Heining, M. Rustaee, N. Navab
Laparoscopic Virtual Mirror for Understanding Vessel Structure: Evaluation Study by Twelve Surgeons
The Sixth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Nara, Japan, Nov. 13 - 16, 2007. (bib)
C. Bichlmeier, M. Rustaee, S.M. Heining, N. Navab
Virtually Extended Surgical Drilling Device: Virtual Mirror for Navigated Spine Surgery
Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (MICCAI 2007), Brisbane, Australia, October/November 2007. (bib)
N. Navab, J. Traub, T. Sielhorst, M. Feuerstein, C. Bichlmeier
Action- and Workflow-Driven Augmented Reality for Computer-Aided Medical Procedures
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 10-14, Sept/Oct, 2007 (bib)
N. Navab, M. Feuerstein, C. Bichlmeier
Laparoscopic Virtual Mirror - New Interaction Paradigm for Monitor Based Augmented Reality
Virtual Reality, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, March 10-14, 2007 (bib)
C. Bichlmeier, T. Sielhorst, N. Navab
The Tangible Virtual Mirror: New Visualization Paradigm for Navigated Surgery
International Workshop on Augmented Reality environments for Medical Imaging and Computer-aided Surgery (AMI-ARCS 2006), Copenhagen, Denmark, October 2006 (bib)


Contact Person(s)

Nassir Navab
Prof. Dr. Nassir Navab

Working Group

Ekkehard Euler
Prof. Dr. Ekkehard Euler
Jürgen Landes
Dr. med. Jürgen Landes
Nassir Navab
Prof. Dr. Nassir Navab


Christoph Bichlmeier
Dr. Christoph Bichlmeier
Irene Faure de Pebeyre
Irene Faure de Pebeyre
Marco Feuerstein
Dr. Marco Feuerstein
Matthias Wieczorek
Dr. Matthias Wieczorek
Mohammad Rustaee
Mohammad Rustaee
Sandro Heining
Dr. med. Sandro Heining


Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik - Innenstadt, AG CAS
Nussbaumstr. 20
80336 München

Room: C2.06
Tel.: +49 89 5160-3615
Tel.: +49 89 5160-3635
Fax: +49 89 5160-3630
Visit our lab at Klinikum Innenstadt.

internal project page

Please contact Nassir Navab for available student projects within this research project.

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