Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

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Dr. rer. nat. Christian Schulte zu Berge


  • Alumni: Now with ImFusion GmbH
    Senior Software Engineer
    schultezb { a t }

Research Interests

  • Visualization
    2D, 3D, Multi-modal, Multi-parametric, Direct Volume Rendering
  • Perception
    Colors, Depth, Pre-Attentive Perception
  • GPU Programming
    OpenGL 4, GLSL


Real-time Processing for Advanced Ultrasound Visualization

The continuous advances in the field of medical imaging constantly provide clinicians with new technology promising to facilitate diagnosis, interventions and therapies and improve their outcome. Inherent with this progress is that the amount of available data, its resolution and quality is significantly increasing. However, such improvements are only of actual use if the data can be adequately presented to the clinician. Thus, visual computing in medicine is an important field of research. This thesis focuses on the development of such techniques specifically designed for medical ultrasound.

At first, techniques for improved 2D B-mode ultrasound visualization are presented, where the observer is provided with interactive feedback on the uncertainty present in the image. A novel incremental solver scheme for the computation of ultrasound Confidence Maps allows for real-time estimation of per-pixel uncertainty information based on ultrasound signal attenuation. This information is then fused with the original B-mode images using three carefully chosen visualization schemes for both educational and clinical applications.

The second part of this thesis then introduces an orientation-driven ultrasound compounding approach to create high-quality 3D ultrasound volumes. Finally, a novel classification concept in the form of point predicates is presented, which seamlessly integrates into the standard direct volume rendering pipeline. In conjunction with the proposed predicate histogram as intuitive user interface, this technique allows for much more meaningful visualization and facilitates the understanding of the data for the observer.



CAMPVis: A Game Engine-inspired Research Framework for Medical Imaging and Visualization

Intra-operative visualization has become more and more an essential part of medical interventions and provides the surgeon with powerful support for his work. However, a potential deployment in the operation room yields various challenges for the developers. Therefore, companies usually offer highly specialized solutions with limited maintainability and extensibility As novel approach, the CAMPVis software framework implements a modern video game engine architecture to provide an infrastructure that can be used for both research purposes and end-user solutions. It is focused on real-time processing and fusion of multi-modal medical data and its visualization. The fusion of multiple modalities (such as CT, MRI, ultrasound, etc.) is the essential step to effectively improve and support the clinician's workflow. Furthermore, CAMPVis provides a library of various algorithms for preprocessing and visualization that can be used and combined in a straight-forward way. This boosts cooperation and synergy effects between different developers and the reusability of developed solutions.


Publications and Awards

Open Access Note: Personal reprints of all first author publications can be downloaded from my website.

VCBM 2018 Best Paper Award
IPCAI 2014 Best Paper Award
C. Schulte-zu-Berge, M. Salehi, F. Bender, W. Wein
Ultrasound Decompression for Large Field-of-View Reconstructions
Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing in Biology and Medicine 2018, Granada, Spain, September 2018 (bib)
Xiang Wang, S. Habert, C. Schulte-zu-Berge, P. Fallavollita, N. Navab
Inverse visualization concept for RGB-D augmented C-arms
Computers in Biology and Medicine (bib)
K. Hofschen, T. Geissler, N. Rieke, C. Schulte-zu-Berge, N. Navab, S. Demirci
Image Descriptors in Angiography
Workshop Bildverarbeitung fuer die Medizin (BVM), March 13-15, 2016. (bib)
C. Schulte-zu-Berge, D. Declara, C. Hennersperger, M. Baust, N. Navab
Real-time Uncertainty Visualization for B-Mode Ultrasound
Proceedings Scientific Visualization 2015, Chicago IL, U.S.A, October 2015 (bib)
C. Schulte-zu-Berge, J. Weiss, N. Navab
Schematic Electrode Map for Navigation in Neuro Data Sets
5th Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing in Biology and Medicine 2015, Chester, U.K., September 2015 (bib)
O. Zettinig, A. Shah, C. Hennersperger, M. Eiber, C. Kroll, H. Kübler, T. Maurer, F. Milletari, J. Rackerseder, C. Schulte-zu-Berge, E. Storz, B. Frisch, N. Navab
Multimodal Image-Guided Prostate Fusion Biopsy based on Automatic Deformable Registration
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery / 6th International Conference on Information Processing in Computer-Assisted Interventions (IPCAI), Barcelona, June 2015.
The original publication is available online at
C. Schulte-zu-Berge, M. Baust, A. Kapoor, N. Navab
Predicate-based Focus-and-Context Visualization for 3D Ultrasound
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (Proceedings Scientific Visualization 2014), Paris, France, November 2014 (bib)
O. Zettinig, C. Hennersperger, C. Schulte-zu-Berge, M. Baust, N. Navab
3D Velocity Field and Flow Profile Reconstruction from Arbitrarily Sampled Doppler Ultrasound Data
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Interventions (MICCAI), Boston, USA, September 2014.
The original publication is available online at
A. Shah, O. Zettinig, T. Maurer, C. Precup, C. Schulte-zu-Berge, J. Weiss, B. Frisch, N. Navab
An Open Source Multimodal Image-guided Prostate Biopsy Framework
3rd Workshop on Clinical Image-based Procedures: Translational Research in Medical Imaging (CLIP), 17th MICCAI, MIT, Boston, USA, September 2014.
The original publication is available online at
C. Schulte-zu-Berge, Artur Grunau, Hossain Mahmud, N. Navab
CAMPVis - A Game Engine-inspired Research Framework for Medical Imaging and Visualization
Technical Report 2014, Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany (bib)
Xiang Wang, S. Demirci, C. Schulte-zu-Berge, P. Fallavollita, N. Navab
Improved Interventional X-ray Appearance
International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 2014 (bib)
C. Schulte-zu-Berge, A. Kapoor, N. Navab
Orientation-Driven Ultrasound Compounding Using Uncertainty Information
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Processing in Computer-Assisted Interventions (IPCAI), Fukuoka, Japan, June 2014 (bib)
S. Diepenbrock, C. Schulte-zu-Berge, K. Hinrichs, L. Wachsmuth, C. Faber
DTI Visualization Using the Voreen Framework
ESMRMB 2011 Congress, October 2011, Leipzig, Germany (bib)

Title: Dr.
Circumference of your head (in cm):  
Firstname: Christian
Lastname: Schulte zu Berge
Picture: cszb_badwaterbasin.jpg
Nationality: Germany
Languages: English, German, French
Groups: Ultrasound
Expertise: Registration/Visualization, Medical Imaging
Position: Scientific Staff
Status: Alumni
Emailbefore: christian.szb
Room: MI 03.13.044
Telephone: +49 89 289-19412
Alumniactivity: Senior Software Engineer at ImFusion GmbH
Defensedate: 1 September 2016
Thesistitle: Real-Time Processing for Advanced Ultrasound Visualization

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