ResearchIssueSensing

Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality
Lehrstuhl für Informatikanwendungen in der Medizin & Augmented Reality

Research Issue: Sensing

Fachgebiet Augmented Reality (FAR)

General Description

To track users and mobile objects in the real world, suitable sensors need to be registered, calibrated and combined in real-time (i.e.: at video rate). We use, test, evaluate and enhance sensing technology, placing particular emphasis on the establishment of sound characteristics of measurement noise.

Associated People

Associated Projects

DySenNetz

DySenNetz (Dynamic Sensor Networks)

This project provides the foundations and formal basis towards building dynamic systems to fuse multiple sensors online. To this end, it a) lays the groundwork for building ad-hoc tracker networks for Augmented Reality, and b) formulates and analyzes accumulation of measurement errors and sensor noise. (Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (DFG))

PRESENCCIA

PRESENCCIA

This project undertakes a research programme that has as its major goal the delivery of presence in wide area distributed mixted reality environments. The environment will include a physical installation that people can visit both physicall and virtually. The installation will be the embodiment of an artificial intelligent entity that understands and learns from its interaction with people. People who inhabit the installation will at any one time be physically there, virtually there but remote, or entirely virtual beings with their own goals and capabilities for interacting with one another and with embodiments of real people. (EU 6th Framework, Future and Emerging Technologies (FET)): The Presenccia project

trackframe

trackframe

Use of AR technology in wide-range industry plants requires a tracking framework which supports a fusion of various tracking technologies based on careful evaluations of tradeoffs between technical requirements and costs. It is the goal of the trackframe project to systematically develop the formal basis of a tracking framework. The concept is expected to consider algorithmic and data-related standards via which tracking systems can be dynamically merged. Furthermore, trackframe aims at providing concepts towards the analysis of quality criteria (such as error statistics for individual sensors) and towards supporting AR-engineers in planning improvements to their tracker configuration. Three demonstrators will exhibit trackframe concepts in industrial and academic setups. (Bayerische Forschungsstiftung (BFS))

COMPOSE

COMPOSE

COMPOSE develops and evaluates collision mitigation and vulnerable road user protection systems for trucks and cars. COMPOSE focuses on pre-crash measures to be taken during the last second before a collision. Various application measures are used: mitigation through autonomous braking / brake assist, and also utilization of protective structural actuators. Various innovative sensor data fusion methods will be pursued to achieve the high degree of sensor reliability, which is mandatory for such applications. (BMW rather than TU Munich is involved in this project.)

Associated Publications

C. Resch, P. Keitler, G. Klinker
Sticky Projections-A Model-Based Approach to Interactive Shader Lamps Tracking.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG) , vol. 22, num. 3, pp. 1291-1301. (bib)
U. Eck, F. Pankratz, C. Sandor, G. Klinker, H. Laga
Precise Haptic Device Co-Location for Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality
IEEE Transactions on Computer Graphics and Visualization, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1427-1441, Dec 2015 (bib)
G. Han, G. Klinker, D. Ostler, A. Schneider
Testing a proximity-based location tracking system with Bluetooth Low Energy tags for future use in the OR
Proc. of the IEEE 17th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (HealthCom?): 1st International Workshop on IOR, Boston, MA, USA, Oct 14-17, 2015, pages 17-21. (bib)
C. Resch, Hemal Naik, P. Keitler, S. Benkhardt, G. Klinker
On-site Semi-Automatic Calibration and Registration of a Projector-Camera System Using Arbitrary Objects with Known Geometry.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG) , vol. 21, num. 11, (ISMAR'15 long papers), pp. 1211-1220. (bib)
F. Pankratz, G. Klinker
[POSTER] AR4AR: Using Augmented Reality for guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Setup.
Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Sep. 29- Oct.3 2015, Fukuoka, Japan, pp. 140-143. (bib)
G. Klinker
Augmented Reality and Industry (original title: Ubiquitous Augmented Reality)
Keynote speech. The 14th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2015), Fukuoka, Japan, Sep. 29, 2015. (bib)
G. Han, G. Klinker
Dynamic threshold adjustment in a proximity-based location tracking system using reference modules
Proc. of the International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), Dubrovnik, Croatia, August 24-28, 2015, pages 1248-1253. (bib)
C. Resch, P. Keitler, , G. Klinker
Semi-automatic calibration of a projector-camera system using arbitrary objects with known geometry
Proc. of the IEEE conference on Virtual Reality (VR), pages 271-272, Arle, France, March 2015. (bib)
M. Huber, M. Schlegel, G. Klinker
Application of Time-Delay Estimation to Mixed Reality Multisensor Tracking
Journal on Virtual Reality and Broadcasting (JVRB), Volume 11, 2014, online (22 pages), http://www.jvrb.org/past-issues/11.2014/3877 (bib)
G. Han, T. Nölle, S. Meindl, E. Wintermantel, G. Klinker
Entwicklung und Evaluation eines automatisierten Prüfverfahrens zur Kalibrierung und Optimierung eines Lokalisierungssystems mittels optischem Tracking
Proc. der 13. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Computer- und Roboterassistierte Chirurgie e.V. (CURAC), München, Sept. 2014, pp. 139 - 142. (bib)
M. Tönnis, G. Klinker
[Demo] Placing Information near to the Gaze of the User
The IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Munich, Germany, Sep. 10 - 12, 2014, pp. 377-378. (bib)
D. Schattel, M. Tönnis, G. Klinker, G. Schubert, F. Petzold
[Demo] On-Site Augmented Collaborative Architecture Visualization
The IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Munich, Germany, Sep. 10 - 12, 2014, pp. 369-370. (bib)
M. Tönnis, S. Weber, G. Klinker
[Poster] The Posture Angle Threshold between Airplane and Window Frame Metaphors
The IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Munich, Germany, Sep. 10 - 12, 2014, pp. 317-318. (bib)
C. Resch, P. Keitler, G. Klinker
Sticky Projections - A New Approach to Interactive Shader Lamp Tracking
The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2014), Munich, Germany, Sep. 10 - 12, 2014, pp. 151-156. (bib)
U. Eck, F. Pankratz, C. Sandor, G. Klinker, H. Laga
Comprehensive Workspace Calibration for Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality
The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2014), Munich, Germany, Sep. 10 - 12, 2014, pp. 123-128. (bib)
D. Kurz, P. Meier, A. Plopski, G. Klinker
Absolute Spatial Context-aware Visual Feature Descriptors for Outdoor Handheld Camera Localization - Overcoming Visual Repetitiveness in Urban Environments - Overcoming Visual Repetitiveness in Urban Environments.
9th International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications (VISAPP), 2014, pp. 56-67. (bib)
F. Pankratz, A. Dippon, T. Coskun, G. Klinker
User awareness of tracking uncertainties in AR navigation scenarios (Poster).
Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Oct. 1-4 2013, pp. 285-286. (bib)
D. Kurz, P. Meier, A. Plopski, G. Klinker
An Outdoor Ground Truth Evaluation Dataset for Sensor-Aided Visual Handheld Camera Localization (Poster).
Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Oct 1-4 2013, pp. 263-264. Best Poster Award. (bib)
C. Waechter, D. Pustka, G. Klinker
Real-Time Monocular People Tracking by Sequential Monte-Carlo Filtering
6th International ACM Conference on Computer Vision / Computer Graphics Collaboration Techniques and Applications (MIRAGE), Berlin, Germany, i4, June 2013 (bib)
J.-M. Normand, M. Sanchez-Vives, C. Waechter, E. Giannopoulos, B. Grosswindhager, B. Spanlang, C. Guger, G. Klinker, M. Srinivasan, M. Slater
Beaming into the Rat World: Enabling Real-Time Interaction between Rat and Human Each at Their Own Scale
PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, Oct. 2012, Volume 7, Issue 10, e48331 (bib)
M. Huber, M. Schlegel, G. Klinker
Temporal Calibration in Multisensor Tracking Setups
9. Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe Virtuelle und Erweiterte Realität (VR-AR 2012), Düsseldorf, Germany, Sept. 2012, pp. 201-212. (bib)
C. Simon (born Gackstatter)
Straßenumfeldmodellierung durch Fusion und Interpretation von Sensordaten zur spurgenauen Positionierung des Fahrzeugs
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, May 2012 (online version) (bib)
T. Seyffarth
Bildbasierte Abstandsregelung für Kraftfahrzeuge
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, April 2012 (online version) (bib)
A. Neumann
Simulationsbasierte Messtechnik zur Prüfung von Head-up Displays
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Ferbruary 2012 (online version) (bib)
M. Schlegel
Zeitkalibrierung für Augmented Reality Anwendungen
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, December 2011 (online version) (bib)
M. Huber
Parasitic Tracking for Ubiquitous Augmented Reality
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, November 2011 (online version) (bib)
C. Waechter, E. Artinger, M. Duschl, G. Klinker
Creating Passion for Augmented Reality Applications - a Teaching Concept for a Lab Course
6th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC), Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, Nov. 29th - Dec. 01st, 2010, pp. 429-438. (bib)
C. Waechter, M. Huber, P. Keitler, M. Schlegel, D. Pustka, G. Klinker
A Multi-Sensor Platform for Wide-area Tracking
9th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Seoul, Korea, Oct. 13-16, 2010, pp. 275-276. (bib)
L. Gruber, S. Gauglitz, J. Ventura, S. Zollmann, M. Huber, M. Schlegel, G. Klinker, D. Schmalstieg, T. Höllerer
The City of Sights: Design, Construction and Measurement of an Augmented Reality Stage Set
The Ninth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Seoul, Korea, Oct. 13 - 16, 2010, pp. 157-163. (bib)
M. Huber, B. Becker, G. Klinker
Location aware computing using RFID infrastructure
Int. J. Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 23 - 38 (bib)
B. Kormann, A. Neve, G. Klinker, W. Stechele
Stereo Vision Based Vehicle Detections
VISIGRAPP 2010: International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications; Angers, France, May 17-21, 2010, pp. 431-438. (bib)
C. Waechter, D. Pustka, G. Klinker
Vision based People Tracking for Ubiquitous Augmented Reality Applications
8th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Orlando, FL, USA, Oct. 19-22, 2009, pp. 221-222. (bib)
M. Huber, M. Schlegel, G. Klinker
Temporal Calibration in Multisensor Tracking Setups
8th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2009), Orlando, USA, October 2009, pp. 177-178 (bib)
R. Lindl
Tracking von Verkehrsteilnehmern im Kontext von Multisensorsystemen
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, April 2009 (online version) (bib)
K. Pentenrieder
Augmented Reality based Factory Planning
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, February 2009 (online version) (bib)
L. Walchshäusl
Maschinelle Erkennung von Verkehrsteilnehmern mittels heterogener Sensorik
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, October 2008 (online version) (bib)
M. Tönnis, R. Lindl, L. Walchshäusl, G. Klinker
Visualization of Spatial Sensor Data in the Context of Automotive Environment Perception Systems
The Sixth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Nara, Japan, Nov. 13 - 16, 2007, pp. 115-124. (bib)
D. Pustka, P. Keitler, M. Huber, F. Echtler, G. Klinker
Ubiquitous Tracking for Quickly Solving Multi-Sensor Calibration and Tracking Problems
Demonstration at the Fourth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Nara, Japan, Nov. 14 - 16, 2007 (bib)
M. Bauer
Tracking Errors in Augmented Reality
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, September 2007 (online version) (bib)
T. Tatschke, F. Färber, E. Fuchs, L. Walchshäusl, R. Lindl
Semi-autonomous reference data generation for perception performance evaluation
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), Quebec, Canada, July 9-12, 2007 (bib)
R. Lindl, L. Walchshäusl, V. Paraschoudis
Autonomous Braking for Collision Mitigation Purposes by Means of Multi Sensor Perception
6th European Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems and Services, Aalborg, Denmark, June 18-20, 2007 (bib)
L. Walchshäusl, R. Lindl
Multi-Sensor Classification using a boosted Cascade Detector
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, June 13-15, 2007 (bib)
H. Najafi
Fast 3D Object Detection and Pose Estimation for Augmented Reality Systems
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, December 2006 (online version) (bib)
D. Pustka, M. Huber, M. Bauer, G. Klinker
Spatial Relationship Patterns: Elements of Reusable Tracking and Calibration Systems
The Fifth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, Oct. 22 - 25, 2006, pp. 88-97. (bib)
M. Bauer, M. Schlegel, D. Pustka, N. Navab, G. Klinker
Interactive Visualization of the Predicted Accuracy of Marker-Based Optical Tracking Systems
Demonstration at the Fifth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, Oct. 22 - 25, 2006. (bib)
M. Bauer, M. Schlegel, D. Pustka, N. Navab, G. Klinker
Predicting and Estimating the Accuracy of n-occular Optical Tracking Systems
The Fifth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, Oct. 22 - 25, 2006, pp. 43-51. (bib)
G. Hillebrand, M. Bauer, K. Achatz, G. Klinker
Inverse Kinematic Infrared Optical Finger Tracking
9th International Conference on Humans and Computers (HC 2006), Aizu, Japan (bib)
R. Lindl, L. Walchshäusl
Three-Level Early Fusion for Road User Detection
PReVENT Fusion Forum e-Journal Volume 1, Sep. 2006 (bib)
L. Walchshäusl, R. Lindl, K. Vogel, T. Tatschke
Detection of Road Users in Fused Sensor Data Streams for Collision Mitigation
10th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems and Automotive Applications, Berlin, Germany, Apr. 25-27 2006 (bib)
F. Althoff, R. Lindl, L. Walchshäusl
Robust Multimodal Hand- and Head Gesture Recognition for controlling Automotive Infotainment Systems
VDI-Tagung - Der Fahrer im 21. Jahrhundert, Braunschweig, Germany, 21.11.2005 (bib)
M. Wagner
Tracking With Multiple Sensors
Dissertation (PhD thesis), Fakultät für Informatik, Technische Universität München, Apr. 2005 (online version) (bib)
L. Walchshäusl
Klassifizierung dynamischer Gesten im Kontext multimodaler Infotainmentsysteme
Diploma Thesis, Dezember 15, 2004 (bib)
M. Wagner, S. Hennauer, G. Klinker
Easing the Transition Between Multiple Trackers
International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) 2004, Arlington, VA, USA, Nov 2-4, 2004 (bib)
H. Najafi, N. Navab, G. Klinker
Automated Initialization for Marker-less Tracking: A Sensor Fusion Approach
International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) 2004, Arlington, VA, USA, Nov 2-4, 2004 (bib)
R. Bauernschmitt, M. Feuerstein, E.U. Schirmbeck, J. Traub, G. Klinker, S.M. Wildhirt, R. Lange
Improved Preoperative Planning in Robotic Heart Surgery
IEEE Proceedings of Computers in Cardiology (CinC 2004), pp. 773 - 776, Chicago, USA, September 2004 (bib)
J. Traub, M. Feuerstein, M. Bauer, E.U. Schirmbeck, H. Najafi, R. Bauernschmitt, G. Klinker
Augmented Reality for Port Placement and Navigation in Robotically Assisted Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery
Proceedings of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS 2004), pp. 735 - 740, Chicago, USA, June 2004 (bib)
G. Klinker, M. Wagner
2nd Joint Advanced Summer School 2004, Course 3: Ubiquitous Tracking for Augmented Reality
Technischer Bericht der TU München, TUM-I0417, June 2004 (bib)
R. Bauernschmitt, E.U. Schirmbeck, M. Groher, P. Keitler, M. Bauer, H. Najafi, G. Klinker, R. Lange
Navigierte Platzierung endovaskulärer Aortenstents
Z Kardiologie 2004 93 S3: 116 (bib)
G. Klinker, H. Najafi, T. Sielhorst, F. Sturm, F. Echtler, M. Isik, W. Wein, C. Truebswetter
FixIt: An Approach towards Assisting Workers in Diagnosing Machine Malfunctions
Proc. of the International Workshop on Design and Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems - MIXER 2004, Funchal, Madeira, CEUR Workshop Proceedings (bib)
F. Echtler, F. Sturm, K. Kindermann, G. Klinker, J. Stilla, J. Trilk, H. Najafi
The Intelligent Welding Gun: Augmented Reality for Experimental Vehicle Construction
Chapter 17 in Virtual and Augmented Reality Applications in Manufacturing (VARAM), Ong S.K and Nee A.Y.C eds, Springer Verlag, 2003, pp 333-360. (bib)
M. Wagner, G. Klinker
An Architecture for Distributed Spatial Configuration of Context Aware Applications
2nd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, Norrköping, Sweden, Dec. 11-12 2003 (bib)
M. Wagner, F. Löw
Configuration Strategies of an AR Toolkit-based Wide Area Tracker
The Second IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 7 2003. (bib)
M. Wagner
Building Wide-Area Applications with the AR Toolkit
The First IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, Darmstadt, Germany, Sept. 29 2002. (bib)
H. Kruppa, M. Bauer, B. Schiele
Skin Patch Detection in Real-World Images
Annual Symposium for Pattern Recognition of the DAGM 2002, Springer LNCS 2449, p. 109f (bib)
M. Wagner
DWARF - Design, Prototypical Implementation and Testing of a Real-Time Optical Feature Tracker
Diplomarbeit (bib)
G. Klinker, T. Reicher, B. Bruegge
Distributed User Tracking Concepts for Augmented Reality Applications
International Symposium on Aumgented Reality (ISAR 2000), Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 37-44. (bib)
G. Klinker, D. Stricker, D. Reiners
An Optically Based Direct Manipulation Interface for Human-Computer Interaction in an Augmented World
Computers and Graphics 23(6), 1999, pp. 827-830. (Also in Proc. Workshop EGVE'99, Austria, 1999.) (bib)
G. Klinker
Augmented Reality: A problem in need of many computer vision-based solutions
NATO Advanced Research Workshop at the 8. International Conference on the Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP-99), org. by A. Leonardis and R. Bajcsy. Ljubljana Slowenia, Aug. 29-31, 1999. (bib)
G. Klinker, D. Stricker, D. Reiners
Augmented Reality: A Balance Act between High Quality and Real-Time Constraints
Proc. 1rst International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR'99); published as a book: Y. Ohta and H. Tamura (eds.), Chapter 18 in "Mixed Reality - Merging Real and Virtual Worlds", 1999, pp. 325-346 (bib)
G. Klinker, D. Stricker, D. Reiners
The Use of Reality Models in Augmented Reality Applications
Proc. European Workshop on 3D Structure from Multiple Images of Large-scale Environments (SMILE), in combination with ECCV'98, 1998; pp. 275-289. (bib)
D. Koller, G. Klinker, E. Rose, D. Breen, R. Whitaker, M. Tuceryan
Real-time vision-based camera tracking for augmented reality applications
Proc. ACM Symp on Virtual Reality, Software and Technology (VRST'97), 1997, pp. 87-94. (bib)
D. Koller, G. Klinker, E. Rose, D. Breen, R. Whitaker, M. Tuceryan
Automated camera calibration and 3D egomotion estimation for augmented reality applications
Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP'97), 1997. (bib)
G. Klinker, K. Ahlers, D. Breen, P.-Y. Chevalier, C. Crampton, D. Greer, A. Kramer, E. Rose, M. Tuceryan, R. Whitaker
Confluence of Computer Vision and Interactive Graphics for Augmented Reality
PRESENCE - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Special Issue on Augmented Reality 6(4), 1997, pp. 433-451. (bib)
G. Klinker
A Physical Approach to Color Image Understanding
Book published by AK Peters, Ltd., Wellesley MA, March 1993. (Based on Ph.D. thesis, Computer Science Department, Carnegie-Mellon University, May, 1988) (bib)
I. Carlbom, W. Hsu, G. Klinker, R. Szeliski, K. Waters, M. Doyle, J. Gettys, K.M. Harris, T.M. Levergood, R. Palmer, L. Palmer, M. Picart, D. Terzopoulos, D. Tonnesen, M. Vannier, G. Wallace
Modeling and Analysis of Empirical Data in Collaborative Environments
Communications of the ACM (CACM), Special Issue on the Siggraph'92 Showcase, Vol. 35, Number 6, June, 1992. (bib)
G. Klinker, S. Shafer, T. Kanade
A Physical Approach to Color Image Understanding
International Journal on Computer Vision (IJCV), 4(1), 1990, pp. 7-38. (bib)
G. Klinker, S. Shafer, T. Kanade
Color Image Analysis with an Intrinsic Reflection Model
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), Tarpon Springs, FL, Dec. 1988, pp. 292-296. (bib)
G. Klinker
A Physical Approach to Color Image Understanding
Ph.D. thesis, Computer Science Department, Carnegie-Mellon University, May, 1988 (bib)
G. Klinker, S. Shafer, T. Kanade
The Measurement of Highlights in Color Images
International Journal on Computer Vision (IJCV), 2(1), 1988, pp. 7-32. (bib)
G. Klinker, S. Shafer, T. Kanade
Using a Color Reflection Model to Separate Highlights from Object Color
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV'87), London, June 1987. (See also proc. DARPA Image Understanding Workshop, CA, Feb. 1987). (bib)
G. Klinker, S. Shafer, T. Kanade
Measurement of Gloss from Color Images
Conference on APPEARANCE of the Inter-Society Color Council (ISCC), Colonial Williamsburg, Feb 8-11, 1987. (bib)
Y.Z. Hsu, H.-H. Nagel, G. Rekers (=Klinker)
New Likelihood Test Methods for Change Detection in Image Sequences
Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing (CVGIP), 26, 1984. (bib)
H.-H. Nagel, G. Rekers (=Klinker)
Moving Object Masks based on an Improved Likelihood Test
International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Munich, 1982. (bib)


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